亚投行:促进地区和世界共同发展

亚投行:促进地区和世界共同发展

3年前的1月16日,亚洲基础设施投资银行(亚投行)正式开业。3年来,这个中国倡议成立的新型多边开发银行,成员数量已从57个增至93个,累计批准贷款75亿美元。截至目前,亚投行以基础设施互联互通项目为重点,覆盖东亚、东南亚、南亚、中亚、西亚、非洲等6个地区13个国家,撬动其他投资近400亿美元进入相关基础设施投资项目。

开业3年来,亚投行在治理结构、政策标准、运营模式等方面体现出国际性、规范性和高标准,赢得了国际社会广泛认可和赞誉,亚投行获得了国际三大评级机构的3A评级及巴塞尔银行监管委员会的零风险权重认定。作为推动构建人类命运共同体的重要平台,亚投行将不断为促进地区和世界共同发展注入新活力。

2018年12月,亚投行批准了印度安得拉邦管道供水工程的贷款项目,这也是亚投行最新批准的一个贷款项目。印度水污染比较严重,水净化设备落后,成为影响人们健康的主要因素之一。这一投资4亿美元的项目,将让安得拉邦330万人用上安全饮用水。

随着这一项目获批,亚投行对印度的贷款项目已经达到9个,贷款额总计超过20亿美元。亚投行的相关资料显示,印度获批的亚投行贷款主要集中在交通、电力、供水等基础设施建设领域。

“印度是亚投行最大借款方,亚投行的贷款促进了印度基础设施建设的改善,例如,孟买地铁4号线引入了亚投行贷款,这条地铁线将减少孟买市区35%的车流量,将极大改善孟买的交通状况。”印度国防研究与分析研究所研究员潘达对人民日报记者说。

孟加拉国发展同样受制于落后的基础设施,特别是电力短缺。亚投行在孟加拉国的第一个贷款项目就涉及电力,在该国巴里萨尔大区博拉岛上投资6000万美元建设的220兆瓦绿色联合循环发电厂项目完工后,每年将新增发电量1300兆瓦时。“孟加拉国严重的电力短缺正在影响其经济增长,并制约了减贫的努力,这项投资将帮助孟加拉国增加电力供应,有效缓解当地用电紧张局面,促进当地工业发展和人民生活水平的提高。”孟加拉国政策研究所执行总裁曼苏尔告诉人民日报记者。

在众多亚投行与印尼合作项目中,对印尼国家贫民窟升级项目的融资支持效果最为显著,直接改善了印尼数千万贫民窟居民的生活质量。2016年4月,印尼国家贫民窟升级项目由印尼政府正式推出,这项总投资为17.4亿美元的项目,旨在通过修建和改造水、电、路等基础设施来提升贫民窟的居住条件。项目推出两个月后,世界银行和亚投行宣布作为合作伙伴共同提供4.33亿美元的融资,其中一半由亚投行承担。

世界银行印尼国家贫民窟升级项目负责人乔治•苏拉娅预计,印尼有约2900万人生活在贫民窟,这一项目将令970万居民直接受益,另有数百万居民间接获益。

首都马尼拉的防洪项目是亚投行在菲律宾的第一个项目。马尼拉市现有的排水系统建于上世纪70年代,目前已严重老化失修。尤其在每年6到10月的台风季节,马尼拉市内洪涝频发,经常导致交通瘫痪及人员伤亡。

根据亚投行的规划,该防洪项目将对36个现有水泵站的设备进行现代化更新,并新建20个水泵站,同时重修市区水道,还包括垃圾处理、排水管道维修等,并且将为重新安置的人口提供住房。亚投行的文件显示,该项目将覆盖2900公顷区域,惠及21万个家庭约97万人。

中亚国家塔吉克斯坦利用亚投行贷款全面推进了首都杜尚别市政道路及立交桥建设项目、杜尚别至邻国乌兹别克斯坦的高速公路现代化改造项目、努列克水电站项目等重点工程。塔吉克斯坦总统战略研究中心第一副主任赛福洛•萨法罗夫表示,“这些项目直接改变了当地人的生活,改善了国家发展的面貌。”

近几年,利用亚投行的资金,塔吉克斯坦大幅改善了本国的基础设施状况。萨法罗夫表示,亚投行在亚洲的发展方面发挥了重要的作用,“亚投行的项目直接针对基础设施的薄弱之处,有利于激发当地的发展活力”。

人民日报记者 苑基荣 赵益普 周翰博

 

AIIB boosts common development of Asia, world

The China-sponsored Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) has approved $7.5 billion in loans to support infrastructure projects in 13 countries of six regions, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia and Africa, driving almost $40 billion of capital into infrastructure projects over the past three years since its opening on Jan. 16, 2016.

To date, the new-type multilateral development bank, with a mission to promote infrastructure connectivity, has expanded its membership from 57 founders to 93 approved members.

In the past three years, the AIIB demonstrated internationalism, normative operation and high standards in its governance structure, policy standards and operation mode, winning wide recognition in the international society.

It received the top-level rating by three major credit rating agencies in the world, and assigned a zero-risk weighting by the Basle Committee on Bank Supervision (BCBS), a body that serves as an influential arbiter for the best standards in financial regulation worldwide.

As an important platform that promotes the building of a community of shared future for mankind, the AIIB will continue to inject new vitality to regional and common development of the world.

In December 2018, the AIIB approved a loan of $400 million for a water supply program in Andhra Pradesh, India, aiming to provide safe drinking water through piped water supply to 3.3 million people in the region, where severe water pollution and poor water purifying equipment affected people’s health.
The AIIB has approved nine loan projects in India including the water supply program, totaling over $2 billion. Most of these loans were used to improve the transportation, electricity supply, water supply and other infrastructure-related areas, according to the AIIB.

India is the largest borrower of the AIIB, and the loans have improved the infrastructure in the country, said Jagannath Panda, a researcher from India’s Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA).

He told People’s Daily that the Mumbai metro line 4, a project that received AIIB funding, will reduce 35-percent amount of traffic in downtown, thus greatly improving the city’s traffic.

Bangladesh is another country that suffers from outdated infrastructure, especially power shortages.

The first loan granted by the AIIB to Bangladesh was aimed to improve power supply for the country - a $60-million capital that went to a greenfield 220-megawatt combined cycle power plant in Bhola island in the Barisal district of Bangladesh. Upon completion, the project will increase power generation by around 1,300 megawatt hours annually.

The AIIB-funded power upgrade project will increase power supply and improve local industrial development and people’s livelihood in Bangladesh, where the severe power shortage is curbing the economic growth and the progress of poverty reduction, said Dr. Ahsan H. Mansur, Executive Director of the Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh (PRI).

Among the AIIB-financed projects in Indonesia, the National Slum Upgrading Project had the most remarkable achievements, improving the livelihood for tens of millions of impoverished residents.

The project was officially launched by the Indonesian government in April 2016, aiming to improve the living conditions in targeted slums via upgrading urban infrastructure such as water supply, power supply and roads.

Two months later, the AIIB, forming a team with the World Bank, announced $433 million of financing for the project. Half of the capital was contributed by the China-sponsored organization.

There are over 29 million Indonesians living in slums, according to the estimate of George Soraya from the World Bank who is in charge of the project.

More than 9.7 million impoverished people across the country will directly benefit from the slum upgrading project, and millions of other residents in Indonesia will also share the benefits.

AIIB’s first loan project to the Philippines aims to improve flood management in selected areas of Metro Manila. The aging drainage system in the Philippine capital was built in the 1970s, and there always are traffic paralysis and casualties during the typhoon season between June and October each year when floods hit the city frequently.

According to the plan of the AIIB, the project will upgrade 36 pumping stations and construct 20 new ones, rebuild urban waterways, and repair garbage treatment facilities and drainage pipelines. It will also house the relocated people.

AIIB documents show that the project will cover 2,900 hectares, benefiting about 970,000 people from 210,000 households.

With AIIB’s loans, Tajikistan in Central Asia has boosted key projects including a city roads and flyovers project in its capital Duschanbe, the Dushanbe-Uzbekistan Border Road Improvement Project and the Nurek Hydropower Rehabilitation Project.

“These projects have directly changed the lives of local people and facilitated national development,” said Sayfullo Safarov, first deputy director of the Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Tajikistan.

In recent years, Tajikistan has significantly improved its infrastructure by making use of AIIB’s loans.

The AIIB has played an important role in Asia’s development, Safarov said, adding that the AIIB's projects improving the poor infrastructure are conducive to stimulating the local development vitality.

By Yuan Jirong, Zhao Yipu and Zhou Hanbo

Source: People’s Daily